How are “cacao” and “cocoa” different?
As a chocolate writer, I get this question all the time, and the answer is quite simple: cacao and cocoa are the same word in different languages. It’s a bit of a debate in the craft chocolate industry as to the differences between the words, but at this point the difference is not in the dictionary definition. In fact, they’re actually the same word, and if anyone tells you differently, then they’re just trying to sell you on cacao benefits, or they don’t know what their talking about.
The only real difference between cocoa and cacao is in the implication and context of each word in their respective languages.
If you just wanted the most basic answer in the great debate of cacao vs. cocoa, then there you go. But to learn about the rather large differences that have come about surrounding the usage of the two words, please read on. In this article we dig into how different cultures which speak these various languages have affected the implied meaning of cacao or cocoa in various contexts. Plus, discover why raw chocolate isn’t really raw.
Cacao vs. Cocoa: Etymology
The original name of Theobroma cacao, long before it was dubbed “cacao” or “cocoa,” was related to the word cacahuatl, meaning “bitter or acidic water.” The word comes from the Aztec language of Nahuatl, and the plant was known by a similar-sounding name throughout the Americas. Despite being native to South America, Theobroma cacao was consumed much more in Central America, from modern-day central Mexico down to Honduras.
The genus name roughly translates as “food of the Gods” in Greek. The plant was named as such by Swedish explorer Carl Linnaeus, in the late 18th century. As you may recall, the Spanish explorers were the first Europeans to invade modern-day Central America, and in the process they found a delightful food called “cacao.”
Each native group had their own name for the plant, but the most important name for our topic today is the Nahuatl. This is the version taken and mangled by those Spanish conquerors, eventually brought back to Europe as “cacao.” Though strangely, the more commonly-known term these days is the Mayan word “kakaw.”
In turn, “cacao” was once again transformed when it made its way into the English lexicon, becoming “cocoa.” The difference between cocoa and cacao may even come down to an incorrectly written ledger on a cargo ship. Since the Nahuatl word is little-known, much less used, outside of present-day Mexico, the two paths which the term has taken are as follows: Spanish, and English/French. If you listen to the pronunciation of the word for Theobroma cacao in other languages, it inevitably sounds similar, but within the pronunciation you may be given a clue as to which cacao tradition they follow.
Cacao Vs. Cocoa: What Is Cacao?
As mentioned above, “cacao” is Theobroma cacao, a plant in the Theobroma family, native to South America and grown in Central America for millennia. This cultivation didn’t stop when the plant was taken to new lands and grown elsewhere. Cacao is still a very important food throughout the Americas, not to mention in Africa & Asia. But since cacao is the Spanish butchering of the word, and the former Spanish colonies are the epicenter of cacao culture, it’s their word which has become elevated in recent years.
The Spanish brought a more nuanced cacao varietal to their former colonies, including the Philippines and throughout the Americas. The criollo varietals have a less bitter & more floral and nutty flavor than their hardier forastero counterpart (discussed below). At the time that they were bringing criollo cacao abroad, the Spaniards may not yet have discovered other varietals, but that doesn’t change the impact their choice has had.
It’s led to entirely different consumption patterns, and in general less processing necessary to make it palatable. For roughly a century, in fact, the Spanish managed to keep cacao a secret from the other European powers. Until one day, it all spilled out.
The Spanish had been consuming cacao almost exclusively in the form of an unsweetened spiced cacao beverage, thought to be an aphrodisiac and generally seen as a show of wealth. In Spain and its colonies, in fact, the consumption of cacao was largely either in the form of a prepared cacao drink or on the plantation in the form of a fruit or fruit liquor. In all forms it was very expensive, making it a highly coveted & specialty food.
To this day, Spain’s consumption of cacao is still mostly in the form of liquids, either drinks or sauces. Even in former Spanish colonies, like the Philippines or Guatemala, most cacao-based products are consumed as less-processed drinks. Chocolate, on the other hand, is the name of a sweet imported dessert.
The cacao fruit and the products made from lightly-processed cacao seeds taste completely different from the chocolate-flavored candy bars you find in the US and other Western countries. Even though they come from the same plant, on the backs of those bars you’d also most likely see the ingredient “cocoa mass,” not “cacao beans.”
Just like cacao, “cocoa” is the fruit and seeds of Theobroma cacao, a tropical plant native to South America. However, “cocoa” is the French and English word for the plant, a mangled interpretation of the Spanish word “cacao.” “Cocoa” entered the languages when the plant itself did, also via the Spanish Empire. Since Theobroma cacao is native to the Americas, once the French & British got their hands on parts of the it, they promptly began taking the plant to their other colonies.
But for the most part, in those first few hundred years only the hardier varietal known as forastero, most common in South America, successfully made it across oceans to Africa and Asia, where French, British, and Dutch colonies were established. Since they were raising a varietal that was naturally a bit more flat and strong in flavor (not to mention more bitter), their inclination was not as strong towards drinking. They needed something a heartier product in order to counteract the seed’s bitter properties.
So, they turned to corn starch and other thickeners, as well as a healthy dose of sugar. In many ways this cheapened the product, but it also stretched out how far each little seed could go. The French and the British brought cocoa from a high-class beverage to an accessible indulgence for people of most classes.
Europeans’ motivations for consuming cocoa in both liquid and solid forms were very similar to those of the Spanish, but for a host of reasons, the situation surrounding cocoa slowly changed. In the 1800’s, an Englishman named Joseph Fry created the first chocolate bar. While other ingredients were added to the drink, like milk and different spices, the food version was just a sweetened portable cacao.
Cacao, or cocoa, is about half fat. This fat is often pressed out of the cocoa beans and sold as cocoa butter, which is highly prized in the cosmetics industry. The rest of this cocoa cake is ground into cocoa powder for making chocolate drinks. Later, this powder was also added to other desserts as a prized flavoring.
Cocoa slowly shifted from the English word for a fruit grown in the Spanish colonies to an ingredient used to flavor treats.
Because of these differing consumption patterns and cultivation choices of the European powers, the connotations of the words “cocoa” and “cacao” have themselves changed. When you think of cacao you likely think of the fruit and the nibs. But when you think of cocoa you likely think of cheap chocolate and sweet cocoa drinks, furthering the implied difference between cocoa and cacao.
What Makes Cacao and Cocoa Different?
Anyone who tells you that “cocoa“ often contains sugar or hydrogenated oils is very ill-informed. It’s like saying that peanuts contains salt and sugar just because some peanut butter does. Just as not all products labelled “cacao” should be prized, not should all those labelled “cocoa” be rebuked.
Because of the British, French, and American origins of most chocolate products throughout the 20th century, most people think of cocoa as the base material for chocolate. Some may even think it’s interchangeable with chocolate. It’s even in the name of that sweet, warm beverage you slurp on cold winter nights, and on the ingredients list of every brownie recipe. But hot cocoa and cocoa powder are not the only products we consume made from Theobroma cacao; they’re just some of the most common.
In fact, the most commonly consumed form of cacao is probably chocolate, another industry in which the cacao vs. cocoa debate lives on. In my experience, chocolate makers who refer to the beans as cacao often bought their beans from a Latin American country, where most of the world’s organic and high-quality cacao comes from. Or they simply feel a closer connection to the tree itself. Maybe they even know the person who grew their cacao.
On the other hand, makers who call the beans “cocoa” are often buying beans from Africa or Asia, or possibly grew up in a country where the tree was called “cocoa,” and “cacao” was its scientific name.
People tend to think of cocoa and cacao as being different products of the cacao bean, when really they’re just different names and implications for the same product.
Smaller chocolate makers tend to call their ingredient “cacao” and source from smaller cacao plantations with more careful processing and attention to detail. They then turn said cacao into less-processed chocolate products, and maybe even a variety of products featuring bit of cacao beans, called nibs. On the other hand, bigger chocolate manufacturers tend to call their ingredient cocoa and source from massive cocoa traders in Africa, Indonesia, or Malaysia. They are more focused on quantity over quality, and continue to use the English word “cocoa” throughout their processing.
Therefore, products calling themselves “cacao” something or other tend to be less-processed and use less sugar, though many natural food companies are using this as marketing leverage. “Cocoa” is not necessarily an over-processed version of the cacao fruit, but it often is. What the consumer needs to know is that cacao and cocoa have different implications, yes, but it’s still their job to look at labels and see whether that product fits in with the implications of its word choice.
A buzzword like “cacao” doesn’t tell you everything.
Cacao vs. Cocoa in “Raw Chocolate”
Just because it’s called “cacao” doesn’t make it less processed. Just because it’s called cocoa doesn’t mean its unhealthy or highly processed. Many chocolate makers who don’t roast their beans surely still refer to them as cocoa beans instead of cacao beans; it’s a mere matter of preference.
What is indisputable, however, is that it’s nearly impossible to find completely raw cacao, unless it’s fresh out of the pod and was dried immediately. In which case, it’s definitely highly acidic and bitter. It also tastes nothing like chocolate. Articles claiming that “raw cacao is best” and “minimally processed cocoa is the future” are simply not up on the science of cacao and chocolate making.
Cacao is a fruit and it grows on a tree in tropical climates. The seeds from that fruit are what we make into chocolate, and after the fruits are harvested and the seeds are collected, the seeds are fermented in massive piles and then dried, two processes which together create the chocolaty flavor we associate with cacao.
Without fermentation, chocolate would taste acidic, bitter, and earthy, and just plain disgusting. Then the dried beans are roasted and peeled, and ground into chocolate. But if you remove the roasting, they’re still technically raw, right?
During fermentation, beans have to reach a certain temperature in order to kill the germ (future cacao tree) inside, and to get rid of the bad flavors & replace them with good ones. That’s a simplification of the process, but the point is: cacao cannot be both raw and taste anything like chocolate. Therefore those “raw cacao” nibs you bought either taste like complete crap, or they were definitely fermented and therefore not raw.
Learn more about the difference between cocoa and cacao in how chocolate is made here.
The Difference Between Cocoa and Cacao
Once you get into the understanding of the two words in people’s minds, then you figure out why people are so confused.
Linguistically, the two words are entirely interchangeable. But due to the etymological connection of cacao, it has a much more healthy and natural connotation. Cocoa, on the other hand, thanks to its historical usage in Africa and Asia, where mostly low-quality cacao is grown, has a cheaper and less healthy reputation.
Even within the chocolate industry, “cacao” is usually used to refer to the raw product, from the tree to the roasted seeds, which some people will then refer to as “cocoa beans.” Some makers still call them “cacao” even after roasting, however, as there is a public understanding of a cacao as a product as a “super food,” which it can be.
The problem is that most people still don’t associate cacao with chocolate, adding to the confusion. Therefore depending on the origin of a chocolate or cocoa product, they may list the ingredients as cocoa or cacao. Depending on the image a product wants to portray, they may market it as cacao-based or cocoa-based. And depending on how thoroughly you read this article, you may now consider yourself educated on both cacao and cocoa.
I reiterate, the dictionary definition of cacao and cocoa, and the product itself, are the same, but the way people use them is different. “Cacao” is often used in reference to the raw material of and from the Theobroma cacao tree, as well as cacao products which want to appear more healthy or natural to consumers. “Cocoa” is often shown alongside marshmallows and other sweets, and used to sell cheap chocolate-flavored snacks.